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Rare Earth Elements (Metals)
(Lanthanides & Actinides)
Chemical Properties, Physical Properties and General Information


Radioactive Material Sign
Radioactive Natural Element
Radioactive Material Sign
Radioactive Synthetic Element
Toxic Material Sign
Toxic Element
Name Sym. No. Atomic
Weight
Melting
Point
Boiling
Point
Phase Density Valence
Electrons
Oxidation
States
Lanthanides (Lanthanoids) - Group 3 Period 6 of the Periodic Table
Scandium Sc 21 44.955912 1541 C 2836 C Solid 2.985 g/cm3 3d14s2 +3
(weakly basic oxide)
Yttrium Y 39 88.90585 1526 C 3336 C Solid 4.472 g/cm3 4d15s2 +3
(weakly basic oxide)
Lanthanum La 57 138.90547 920 C 3464 C Solid 6.162 g/cm3 5d16s2 +3
(strongly basic oxide)
Cerium Ce 58 140.116 795 C 3443 C Solid 6.770 g/cm3 4f15d16s2 +3,+4
(mildly basic oxide)
Praseodymium Pr 59 140.90765 935 C 3520 C Solid 6.77 g/cm3 4f36s2 +3
(mildly basic oxide)
Neodymium Nd 60 144.242 1024 C 3074 C Solid 7.01 g/cm3 4f46s2 +3
(mildly basic oxide)
Promethium Radioactive Synthetic Element Pm 61 145 1042 C 3000 C Solid 7.26 g/cm3 4f56s2 +3
(mildly basic oxide)
Samarium Sm 62 150.36 1072 C 1794 C Solid 7.52 g/cm3 4f66s2 +2,+3
(mildly basic oxide)
Europium Eu 63 151.964 826 C 1529 C Solid 5.244 g/cm3 4f76s2 +2,+3
(mildly basic oxide)
Gadolinium Gd 64 157.25 1312 C 3273 C Solid 7.90 g/cm3 4f75d16s2 +3
(mildly basic oxide)
Terbium Tb 65 158.92535 1356 C 3230 C Solid 8.23 g/cm3 4f96s2 +3
(weakly basic oxide)
Dysprosium Dy 66 162.500 1407 C 2567 C Solid 8.540 g/cm3 4f106s2 +3
(weakly basic oxide)
Holmium Ho 67 164.93032 1461 C 2720 C Solid 8.79 g/cm3 4f116s2 +3
(basic oxide)
Erbium Er 68 167.259 1529 C 2868 C Solid 9.066 g/cm3 4f126s2 +3
(basic oxide)
Thulium Tm 69 168.93421 1545 C 1950 C Solid 9.32 g/cm3 4f136s2 +3
(basic oxide)
Ytterbium Yb 70 173.04 824 C 1196 C Solid 6.90 g/cm3 4f146s2 +2,+3
(basic oxide)
Lutetium Lu 71 174.967 1652 C 3402 C Solid 9.841 g/cm3 5d16s2 +3
(weakly basic oxide)
Actinides (Actinoids) - Group 3 Period 7 of the Periodic Table
Actinium Radioactive Natural Element Ac 89 227 1050 C 3198 C Solid 10 g/cm3 6d17s2 +3(neutral oxide)
Thorium Radioactive Natural Element Toxic Element Th 90 232.03806 1842 C 4788 C Solid 11.7 g/cm3 6d27s2 +4
(weakly basic oxide)
Protactinium Radioactive Synthetic Element Pa 91 231.03588 1568 C 4027 C Solid 15.37 g/cm3 5f26d17s2 +5,+4
(weakly basic oxide)
Uranium Radioactive Natural Element Toxic Element U 92 238.02891 1132.2 C 4131 C Solid 19.1 g/cm3 5f36d17s2 +3,+4,+5,+6
(weakly basic oxide)
Trans-Uranium Elements
Neptunium Radioactive Natural Element Toxic Element Np 93 237 637 C 4000 C Solid 20.2 g/cm3 5f46d17s2 +3,+4,+5,+6
(amphoteric oxide)
Plutonium Radioactive Natural Element Toxic Element Pu 94 244 639.4 C 3228 C Solid 19.816 g/cm3 5f67s2 +3,+4,+5,+6
(amphoteric oxide)
Americium Radioactive Synthetic Element Toxic Element Am 95 243 1176 C 2607 C Solid 13.6 g/cm3 5f77s2 +3,+4,+5,+6
(amphoteric oxide)
Curium Radioactive Synthetic Element Cm 96 247 1340 C 3110 C Solid 13.51 g/cm3 5f76d17s2 +3
(amphoteric oxide)
Berkelium Radioactive Synthetic Element Bk 97 247 1050 C Unknown Solid 14 g/cm3 5f97s2 +3,+4
Californium Radioactive Synthetic Element Cf 98 251 900 C Unknown Solid Unknown 5f107s2 +3
Einsteinium Radioactive Synthetic Element Es 99 252 860 C Unknown Solid Unknown 5f117s2 +3
Fermium Radioactive Synthetic Element Fm 100 257 1527 C Unknown Solid Unknown 5f127s2 +3
Mendelevium Radioactive Synthetic Element Md 101 258 827 C Unknown Solid Unknown 5f137s2 +2,+3
Nobelium Radioactive Synthetic Element No 102 259 827 C Unknown Solid Unknown 5f147s2 +2,+3
Lawrencium Radioactive Synthetic Element Lr 103 262 1627 C Unknown Solid Unknown ? 7s2 7p1 +3

Rare Earth Elements (REE): Composed of the lanthanide and actinide series; most of the actinides are trans-uraniums. They never occur free in nature. These metals are similar because their atomic structures are similar; all form compounds with the most common oxidation state 3. The REEs are metals, with high lustre and electrical conductivity. In colour, they are typically silver, silvery-white or grey. At elevated temperatures many ignite and burn vigorously. Are used in petroleum and electronics industries, manufacture of super conductors, permanent magnets, ceramics, glass, and metal alloys.



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