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Inventions
& Patents


Reference




Chemistry Inventions, Discoveries and Patents



Invention Inventor Year
Short Description
Patent No.
Aluminum Charles Hall 1888 Electrolytic method for extracting pure aluminum from its ore US400,665
Anti-Leukemia Drugs Gertrude Elion 1955 2-Amino-6-Mercaptopurine, or Purinethol, the first major medicine to fight leukemia. US2,884,667
Bakelite Leo Baekeland 1907 Nonflammable material that was cheaper and more versatile than other known plastics. Used in everything from engine parts to jewelry to electronics. US942,699
Bromine Extraction Herbert Dow 1891 Entirely new method of extracting bromine from prehistoric brine. US11,232
Carborundum Edward Acheson 1897 Highly effective abrasive used in manufacturing. US492,767
US615,648
Catalytic Cracking William Burton 1912 First commercially successful process for cracking crude oil into gasoline and other products. US1,049,667
Cortisone(Synthetic) Lewis Sarett 1945 Synthetic version of the hormone cortisone: an effective treatment against rheumatoid arthritis. US2,462,133
Dynamite Alfred Nobel 1866 Combination of nitroglycerin absorbed by a porous substance that enabled an easily handled, solid yet malleable explosive. US78,317
HDPE and Polypropylene Plastics Robert Banks
Paul Hogan
1956 A method to produce HDPE in a low pressure situation. US2,825,721
Isothiocyanate Compounds Joseph Burckhalter
Robert Seiwald
1958 Identification of antigens through the synthesis of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) US2,937,186
Kevlar Stephanie Kwolek 1971 Polymer fiber five times stronger than the same weight of steel for bullet-resistant vests and many other applications. US3,819,587
Nystatin Rachel Brown
Elizabeth Hazen
1952 Antifungal / antibiotic cure for many disfiguring and disabling fungal infections of the skin, mouth, throat, and intestinal tract. US2,797,183
Oral Contraceptives Frank Colton 1951 Enovid, the first oral contraceptive US2,691,028
Pasteurization Louis Pasteur 1862 Process of heating food for the purpose of killing harmful organisms such as bacteria, viruses, protozoa, molds, and yeasts. US135,245
Peanut Products George Washington Carver 1923 Peanut cosmetics, paints and stains. US1,522,176
US1,541,478
Penicillin Production Andrew Moyer 1945 By culturing the penicillium mold in a culture broth comprising corn steep liquor and lactose, penicillin yields could be increased many fold US2,442,141
US2,443,989
Penicillin Production John Sheehan 1957 The first rational total and general synthesis of natural penicillin. US3,939,151
Pentothal Donalee Tabern
Ernest Volwiler
1936 General anesthetic Pentothal, one of the most important agents in modern medicine US2,153,729
pH Meter Arnold Beckman 1935 Apparatus for testing acidity US2,058,761
Photography George Eastman 1885 The first commercial film was cut in narrow strips and wound on a roller device patented by Eastman and Walker US226,503
Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Kary Mullis 1983 PCR amplifies specific DNA sequences from very small amounts of complex genetic material. The amplification produces an almost unlimited number of highly purified DNA molecules suitable for analysis or manipulation. Essential for screening genetic and infectious diseases, genetics, medicine, forensics and paternity testing. US4,683,202
Polyurethane William Hanford
Donald Holmes
1939 Process that reacts polyols and related hydroxy compounds with di-isocyanates for making the multipurpose material polyurethane. Uses: upholstery, heat-insulation, artificial hearts, safety padding in modern automobiles and carpeting. US2,284,896
Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) Waldo Semon 1926 A method to plasticize PVC by blending it with various additives rendering it a more flexible and more easily processed material that soon has become the world's second-best-selling plastic. US1,929,453
US2,188,396
Prozac Bryan Molloy
Klaus Schmiegel
1974 A class of aryloxyphenylpropylamines, which includes the active ingredient in Prozac®, the most widely used antidepressant. US4,314,081
Scotchgard (TM) Textile Protector Patsy Sherman
Samuel Smith
1956 One of the most widely used and valuable products in stain repellency and soil removal. US3,574,791
Synthetic Rubber Julius Nieuwland 1928 A process by which monovinylacetylene were treated with hydrogen chloride and the resulting chloroprene polymerized, neoprene would result. US1,811,959
Synthetic Rubber Wallace Carothers 1930 A process that enabled the large-scale production of Neoprene, the first commercially successful synthetic rubber. US2,130,947
US2,130,948
Tagamet - Cimetidine Graham Durant
John Emmett
Charon Ganellin
1974 Tagamet is one of the world's most essential drugs for its ability to heal stomach ulcers without surgery. US3,950,333
US4,024,271
Teflon Roy Plunkett 1938 A synthetic fluoropolymer which has an extremely low coefficient of friction against polished steel and is used as a non-stick coating for pans and other cookware. It is very non-reactive, and so is often used in containers and pipework for reactive and corrosive chemicals. US2,230,654
Tetracycline Lloyd Conover 1953 Tetracycline one of the most prescribed broad spectrum antibiotic and is the drug of choice for a number of serious bacterial infections. US2,699,054
Titanium William Kroll 1932 "Kroll Process" enables the production of metallic ductile titanium by combining titanium tetrachloride with calcium. US2,205,854
Transparent Silica James Hyde 1934 A process for making fused silica, an impurity-free glass, using a method called “frame hydrolysis.” US2,272,342
Vaccine for Hepatitis B Baruch Blumberg
Irving Millman
1963 Blumberg discovered an antigen in 1963 that detected the presence of hepatitis B in blood samples. Blumberg and Millman developed later a test that identified hepatitis B in blood samples and developed a vaccine against the virus. US3,636,191
US3,872,225
Vitamins Max Tishler 1940 Process for the synthesis of riboflavin that would permit economical, large-scale production of the essential vitamin (B2). US2,261,608
US2,404,199
Vitamins Robert Williams 1933 Isolation of vitamin B1 (thiamine) from a syrup of rice polishings. US2,049,988
Vulcanization of Rubber Charles Goodyear 1839 A process by which rubber is mixed with sulfur and heated - what came to be known as vulcanization strengthened rubber. Uses: a vast variety of industrial uses, including, eventually, automobile tires. US3,633


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